Neocortex M1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic GLU cell

- - NCx - M1 - L6 - PRINC - pyramidal - corticothalamic - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal apical dendrite
----- Glutamate
Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20012 ).
GabaA
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
GabaB
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
5-HT2
Immunolabeling was observed in soma and dendrites of layer V pyramidal cells in the frontal cortex (Xu T and Pandey SC, 2000 [rat]5 ).
NMDA
Apical dendrites of L6 pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex are similar to L5 and L2/3 in that they includeNMDA-dependent electrogenesis (Ledergerber D and Larkum ME, 20107 ).
I p,q
Many authors have described the activation of dendritic voltage activated Ca channels (Yuste R and Denk W, 1995 [rat]16 ).
I Na,p
This persistant conductance may be activated by the NMDA receptor depolarization, providing a mechanism for graded, voltage dependent EPSP amplification (Schwindt PC and Crill WE, 1995 [rat]15 ).
I Na,t
Numerous authors (e.g., (Wong RK et al, 197917 ). Benardo et al 1982; (Huguenard JR et al, 1989 [rat]18 ). have provided evidence for active properties. Dual patch recordings show backpropagating impulses (Stuart GJ and Sakmann B, 1994 [rat]19 ). (Ulrich D and Stricker C, 200020 ).
I K
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I A
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I Calcium
The developmental evolution of Ca-dependent spikes in the tuft was investigated using simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings (Zhu JJ, 2000 [rat]21 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20039 ).
I h
Ih conductance causes voltage attunuation and is more concentrated in dendrites than in soma (Stuart G and Spruston N, 199822 ). The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. Up to approximately 400um from the soma a low density of channels was found, with a 20-fold increase in the apical distal dendrite. The findings suggest that integration of synaptic input to the apical tuft and the basal dendrites occurs spatially independently due to the high Ih channel density in the apical tuft that increases the electrotonic distance between these two compartments in comparison to a passive dendrite (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ). A linear increase has been found (9 pA/100um) in the density of these channels with distance from soma. It was suggested that this generates site independence of EPSP time course (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 200024 ).
Middle apical dendrite
----- Glutamate
Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20012 ).
GabaA
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
GabaB
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
5-HT2
Immunolabeling was observed in soma and dendrites of layer V pyramidal cells in the frontal cortex (Xu T and Pandey SC, 2000 [rat]5 ).
I L high threshold
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ).
I Calcium
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20039 ).
I Na,p
This persistant conductance may be activated by the NMDA receptor depolarization, providing a mechanism for graded, voltage dependent EPSP amplification (Schwindt PC and Crill WE, 1995 [rat]15 ).
I Na,t
Numerous authors (e.g., (Wong RK et al, 197917 ). Benardo et al 1982; (Huguenard JR et al, 1989 [rat]18 ). have provided evidence for active properties. Dual patch recordings show backpropagating impulses (Stuart GJ and Sakmann B, 1994 [rat]19 ). (Ulrich D and Stricker C, 200020 ).
I p,q
Many authors have described the activation of dendritic voltage activated Ca channels (Yuste R and Denk W, 1995 [rat]16 ).
I K
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I A
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. Up to approximately 400um from the soma a low density of channels was found, with a 20-fold increase in the apical distal dendrite. The findings suggest that integration of synaptic input to the apical tuft and the basal dendrites occurs spatially independently due to the high Ih channel density in the apical tuft that increases the electrotonic distance between these two compartments in comparison to a passive dendrite (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ). A linear increase has been found (9 pA/100um) in the density of these channels with distance from soma. It was suggested that this generates site independence of EPSP time course (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 200024 ).
I N
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ).
Proximal apical dendrite
----- Glutamate
Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20012 ).
GabaA
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
GabaB
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
5-HT2
Immunolabeling was observed in soma and dendrites of layer V pyramidal cells in the frontal cortex (Xu T and Pandey SC, 2000 [rat]5 ).
I Calcium
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20039 ).
I L high threshold
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ).
I N
Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat]8 ).
I Na,p
This persistant conductance may be activated by the NMDA receptor depolarization, providing a mechanism for graded, voltage dependent EPSP amplification (Schwindt PC and Crill WE, 1995 [rat]15 ).
I Na,t
Numerous authors (e.g., (Wong RK et al, 197917 ). Benardo et al 1982; (Huguenard JR et al, 1989 [rat]18 ). have provided evidence for active properties. Dual patch recordings show backpropagating impulses (Stuart GJ and Sakmann B, 1994 [rat]19 ). (Ulrich D and Stricker C, 200020 ).
I p,q
Many authors have described the activation of dendritic voltage activated Ca channels (Yuste R and Denk W, 1995 [rat]16 ).
I K
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. Up to approximately 400um from the soma a low density of channels was found, with a 20-fold increase in the apical distal dendrite. The findings suggest that integration of synaptic input to the apical tuft and the basal dendrites occurs spatially independently due to the high Ih channel density in the apical tuft that increases the electrotonic distance between these two compartments in comparison to a passive dendrite (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ). A linear increase has been found (9 pA/100um) in the density of these channels with distance from soma. It was suggested that this generates site independence of EPSP time course (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 200024 ).
I A
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
Glutamate
Dual whole-cell recordings in acute slices showed that kainate receptors located on presynaptic interneuron terminals can be activated by glutamate released from the somatodendritic compartment of the postsynaptic pyramidal cells (Ali AB et al, 200128 ).
Distal basal dendrite
----- Glutamate
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. The basal dendrites were practically devoid of this conductance (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ).
Middle basal dendrite
----- Glutamate
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. The basal dendrites were practically devoid of this conductance (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ).
Proximal basal dendrite
----- Glutamate
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. The basal dendrites were practically devoid of this conductance (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ).
Soma
Basket Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaA
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
Basket Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaB
The distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors was studied with patch-clamp recording in combination with infrared-guided laser stimulation to release GABA photolytically. The data suggest that relatively more GABAA receptors are located at the apical dendrite and relatively more GABAB receptors near the soma (Eder M et al, 20011 ).
5-HT2
Immunolabeling was observed in soma and dendrites of layer V pyramidal cells in the frontal cortex (Xu T and Pandey SC, 2000 [rat]5 ).
NMDA
The rate of NMDAR channel opening was studied in response to depolarisations at different times after brief (1 ms) and sustained (4.6 s) applications of glutamate to nucleated patches from neocortical pyramidal neurons (Kampa BM et al, 20046 ).
I Calcium
It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat]10 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20039 ).
I CAN
using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons showed that Ca2+-dependent K+ currents were activated by Ca2+ entry through both N- and L-type channels (Sun X et al, 200311 ).
I L high threshold
using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons showed that Ca2+-dependent K+ currents were activated by Ca2+ entry through both N- and L-type channels (Sun X et al, 200311 ).
I Na,t
I K
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I Na,p
This persistant conductance may be activated by the NMDA receptor depolarization, providing a mechanism for graded, voltage dependent EPSP amplification (Schwindt PC and Crill WE, 1995 [rat]15 ).
I h
The subcellular distribution and biophysical properties of this current were studied in cell-attached patches. Up to approximately 400um from the soma a low density of channels was found, with a 20-fold increase in the apical distal dendrite. The findings suggest that integration of synaptic input to the apical tuft and the basal dendrites occurs spatially independently due to the high Ih channel density in the apical tuft that increases the electrotonic distance between these two compartments in comparison to a passive dendrite (Berger T et al, 2001 [rat]23 ). A linear increase has been found (9 pA/100um) in the density of these channels with distance from soma. It was suggested that this generates site independence of EPSP time course (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 200024 ).
I A
Types and distribution of voltage-gated K+ channels in the soma and apical dendrites were studied in acute brain slices (Korngreen A and Sakmann B, 200012 ). The amplitude of ensemble K+ currents in cell-attached patches decreased along the apical dendrite as the distance from the soma increased, with a slope of -0.9 +/- 0.3 pA per 100um. In nucleated outside-out patches from soma in acute slices of sensorimotor cortex from 13- to 15-day-old Wistar rats some patches contained only I-A-like channels, other contained only IK-like channels that did not inactivate or inactivated slowly, and the remainder contained mixtures of both types. The amount of IA and IK depended weakly on distance along the primary apical dendrite from the soma. The amplitude of IA increased, while the amplitude of IK decreased (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]13 ). (Bekkers JM, 2000 [rat]14 ).
I K,Ca
Dual patch-clamp recordings showed that Ca-activated K+ (BK) channels were not triggered by neuronal action potentials in normal slices and only opened as neuronal responses deteriorated (smaller or absent spikes) and in a spike-independent manner, suggesting that BK channels may activate only in pathological conditions (Kang J et al, 2000 [rat]25 ). Intracellular recordings from sensorimotor cortex suggested that what activate IKCa persistently would not be calcium but some biochemical modification triggered by NMDA receptor activation (Kitagawa H et al, 2000 [cat]26 ). Ca2+-activated K+ currents were studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons (Sun X et al, 200311 ).
Glutamate
Dual whole-cell recordings in acute slices showed that kainate receptors located on presynaptic interneuron terminals can be activated by glutamate released from the somatodendritic compartment of the postsynaptic pyramidal cells (Ali AB et al, 200128 ).
Axon hillock
Chandelier Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaA
Chandelier Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaB
I Na,t
I K
Axon fiber
I Na,t
Axon terminal
D1
Dual whole-cell recordings in connected cell pairs suggested that attenuation of local horizontal excitation by dopamine is through D1 actions at a presynaptic site (Gao WJ et al, 20014 ).
I N
Glutamate Spiny Neuron: Ded and Thalamic Relay Neuron: Ded and Superficial Pyramidal Neurons
From cerebral cortex (McGeer PL et al, 1977 [mammal]27 ).
GabaA
(Castro-Alamancos MA, 20003 ).
GabaB
(Castro-Alamancos MA, 20003 ).
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Eder M, Rammes G, Zieglgänsberger W and Dodt HU. (2001) GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors on neocortical neurons are differentially distributed. Eur J Neurosci 13:1065-9.
2.  Frick A, Zieglgänsberger W and Dodt HU. (2001) Glutamate receptors form hot spots on apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 86:1412-21 [Journal] .
3.  Castro-Alamancos MA. (2000) Origin of synchronized oscillations induced by neocortical disinhibition in vivo. J Neurosci 20:9195-206.
4.  Gao WJ, Krimer LS and Goldman-Rakic PS. (2001) Presynaptic regulation of recurrent excitation by D1 receptors in prefrontal circuits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:295-300 [Journal] .
5.  Xu T and Pandey SC. (2000) Cellular localization of serotonin(2A) (5HT(2A)) receptors in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull 51:499-505.
6.  Kampa BM, Clements J, Jonas P and Stuart GJ. (2004) Kinetics of Mg2+ unblock of NMDA receptors: implications for spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. J Physiol 556:337-45 [Journal] .
7.  Ledergerber D and Larkum ME. (2010) Properties of layer 6 pyramidal neuron apical dendrites. J Neurosci 30:13031-44 [Journal] .
8.  Markram H, Helm PJ and Sakmann B. (1995) Dendritic calcium transients evoked by single back-propagating action potentials in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 485 ( Pt 1):1-20.
9.  Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88 [Journal] .
10.  Brown AM, Schwindt PC and Crill WE. (1993) Voltage dependence and activation kinetics of pharmacologically defined components of the high-threshold calcium current in rat neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:1530-43 [Journal] .
11.  Sun X, Gu XQ and Haddad GG. (2003) Calcium influx via L- and N-type calcium channels activates a transient large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current in mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 23:3639-48.
12.  Korngreen A and Sakmann B. (2000) Voltage-gated K+ channels in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurones from young rats: subtypes and gradients. J Physiol 525 Pt 3:621-39.
13.  Bekkers JM. (2000) Distribution and activation of voltage-gated potassium channels in cell-attached and outside-out patches from large layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons of the rat. J Physiol 525 Pt 3:611-20.
14.  Bekkers JM. (2000) Properties of voltage-gated potassium currents in nucleated patches from large layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons of the rat. J Physiol 525 Pt 3:593-609.
15.  Schwindt PC and Crill WE. (1995) Amplification of synaptic current by persistent sodium conductance in apical dendrite of neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 74:2220-4 [Journal] .
16.  Yuste R and Denk W. (1995) Dendritic spines as basic functional units of neuronal integration. Nature 375:682-4 [Journal] .
17.  Wong RK, Prince DA and Basbaum AI. (1979) Intradendritic recordings from hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76:986-90.
18.  Huguenard JR, Hamill OP and Prince DA. (1989) Sodium channels in dendrites of rat cortical pyramidal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2473-7.
19.  Stuart GJ and Sakmann B. (1994) Active propagation of somatic action potentials into neocortical pyramidal cell dendrites. Nature 367:69-72 [Journal] .
20.  Ulrich D and Stricker C. (2000) Dendrosomatic voltage and charge transfer in rat neocortical pyramidal cells in vitro. J Neurophysiol 84:1445-52 [Journal] .
21.  Zhu JJ. (2000) Maturation of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons: amplifying salient layer 1 and layer 4 inputs by Ca2+ action potentials in adult rat tuft dendrites. J Physiol 526 Pt 3:571-87.
22.  Stuart G and Spruston N. (1998) Determinants of voltage attenuation in neocortical pyramidal neuron dendrites. J Neurosci 18:3501-10 [Journal] .
23.  Berger T, Larkum ME and Lüscher HR. (2001) High I(h) channel density in the distal apical dendrite of layer V pyramidal cells increases bidirectional attenuation of EPSPs. J Neurophysiol 85:855-68 [Journal] .
24.  Williams SR and Stuart GJ. (2000) Site independence of EPSP time course is mediated by dendritic I(h) in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 83:3177-82 [Journal] .
25.  Kang J, Huguenard JR and Prince DA. (2000) Voltage-gated potassium channels activated during action potentials in layer V neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 83:70-80 [Journal] .
26.  Kitagawa H, Nishimura Y, Kumazawa Y, Akamine T and Yamamoto T. (2000) Activity-dependent slow hyperpolarization in cat sensorimotor cortex in vitro. Brain Res 869:69-77.
27.  McGeer PL, McGeer EG, Scherer U and Singh K. (1977) A glutamatergic corticostriatal path? Brain Res 128:369-73.
28.  Ali AB, Rossier J, Staiger JF and Audinat E. (2001) Kainate receptors regulate unitary IPSCs elicited in pyramidal cells by fast-spiking interneurons in the neocortex. J Neurosci 21:2992-9.