Thalamus geniculate nucleus/lateral principal GLU cell

- - - THAL - PRINC - geniculate nucleus/lateral - - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal equivalent dendrite
Corticogeniculate input (T) NMDA
SOBIV p316
Corticogeniculate input (T) AMPA
SOBIV p316
Deep pyramidal neuron terminals (T) Glutamate
Corticogeniculate input (T) mGluR
Unlike the retinogeniculate input, the corticogeniculate input is received by both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (McCormick DA and von Krosigk M, 1992 [guinea pig]5 ). SOBIV p316).A study indicates that synaptic activation of these receptors increases inhibitory activity in relay neurons by increasing output of presynaptic dendrites (Govindaiah and Cox CL, 20046 ).
I L high threshold
Using electrophysiological recordings and imaging, the density of these channels was found to rapidly decrease with distance from soma (Budde T et al, 199810 ).
Middle equivalent dendrite
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) M1
Slow second messeger pathway that leads to a reduction in K+ current. This can switch the cell from burst to tonic mode (McCormick DA and Prince DA, 1987 [guinea-pig and cat]1 ). (Lu SM et al, 1993 [cat]2 ). reviewed in (McCormick DA, 19893 ). SOBIV p317).
Corticogeniculate input (T) mGluR
Unlike the retinogeniculate input, the corticogeniculate input is received by both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (McCormick DA and von Krosigk M, 1992 [guinea pig]5 ). SOBIV p316).A study indicates that synaptic activation of these receptors increases inhibitory activity in relay neurons by increasing output of presynaptic dendrites (Govindaiah and Cox CL, 20046 ).
TRN neuron terminals (T) GabaA
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Nicotinic
Leads to a fast EPSP which allows an influx of cations. This can work with the M1 receptors to switch the cell from burst to tonic mode (McCormick DA and Prince DA, 1987 [guinea-pig and cat]1 ). (Lu SM et al, 1993 [cat]2 ). reviewed in (McCormick DA, 19893 ). SOBIV p317).
TRN neuron terminals (T) GabaB
Corticogeniculate input (T) AMPA
SOBIV p316
Corticogeniculate input (T) NMDA
SOBIV p316
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Cholinergic Receptors
90% of cat brainstem input to LGN is cholinergic (Smith Y et al, 1988 [cat]7 ). (Bickford ME et al, 1993 [cat]8 ). in SOBIV 297.
I L high threshold
Using electrophysiological recordings and imaging, the density of these channels was found to rapidly decrease with distance from soma (Budde T et al, 199810 ).
Proximal equivalent dendrite
TRN neuron terminals (T) GabaB
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) M1
Slow second messeger pathway that leads to a reduction in K+ current. This can switch the cell from burst to tonic mode (McCormick DA and Prince DA, 1987 [guinea-pig and cat]1 ). (Lu SM et al, 1993 [cat]2 ). reviewed in (McCormick DA, 19893 ). SOBIV p317).
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Nicotinic
Leads to a fast EPSP which allows an influx of cations. This can work with the M1 receptors to switch the cell from burst to tonic mode (McCormick DA and Prince DA, 1987 [guinea-pig and cat]1 ). (Lu SM et al, 1993 [cat]2 ). reviewed in (McCormick DA, 19893 ). SOBIV p317).
TRN neuron terminals (T) GabaA
Ganglion Cell terminal (t) Glutamate
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Cholinergic Receptors
90% of cat brainstem input to LGN is cholinergic (Smith Y et al, 1988 [cat]7 ). (Bickford ME et al, 1993 [cat]8 ). in SOBIV 297.
mGluR
A study indicates that synaptic activation of these receptors increases inhibitory activity in relay neurons by increasing output of presynaptic dendrites (Govindaiah and Cox CL, 20046 ).
I L high threshold
This conductance triggers impulses in dendrites and soma, leading to Ca-dependant K conductances (Steriade M and Llinás RR, 1988 [mammal]12 ). Sherman and Koch, 1990).Using electrophysiological recordings and imaging, the density of these channels was found to rapidly decrease with distance from soma and clustered in high density around the base of dendrites (Budde T et al, 199810 ).
I Na,t
Cell-attached recordings in rats up to about 60um from the soma demonstrated a non-uniform dendritic distribution of channels (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I A
Cell-attached recordings in rats up to about 60um from the soma demonstrated a roughly uniform density of channels across the somatodendritic area examined that corresponds to approximately half the average path length of TC neuron dendrites (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I K
Cell-attached recordings in rats up to about 60um from the soma demonstrated a roughly uniform density of channels across the somatodendritic area examined that corresponds to approximately half the average path length of TC neuron dendrites (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I T low threshold
Cell-attached dendritic recordings in rats up to about 60um from the soma showed that low-threshold calcium channels were concentrated at proximal dendritic locations, sites known to receive excitatory synaptic connections from primary afferents, suggesting that they play a key role in the amplification of sensory inputs to TC neurons (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
Soma
Locus Coeruleus Alpha2
Locus Coeruleus Alpha1
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Muscarinic
Retinogeniculate neurons and corticogeniculate neurons (T) NMDA
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) Nicotinic
Leads to a fast EPSP which allows an influx of cations. This can work with the M1 receptors to switch the cell from burst to tonic mode (McCormick DA and Prince DA, 1987 [guinea-pig and cat]1 ). (Lu SM et al, 1993 [cat]2 ). reviewed in (McCormick DA, 19893 ). SOBIV p317).
TRN neuron and interneuron terminals (T) GabaA
In slices of rat brain at various postnatal ages was found that decay times of evoked IPSCs and spontaneous miniature IPSCs undergo progressive shortening during the first postnatal month (Okada M et al, 2000 [rat]4 ).
TRN neuron and interneuron terminals (T) GabaB
Retinogeniculate neurons and corticogeniculate neurons (T) AMPA
Afferents from the parabrachial region (T) M2
I A
This is fast activating. There is also I P which is A-like but slowly activating. Some kinetic properties of this current were studied in cell-attached recordings in rats (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I K,leak
This current is reduced by activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (McCormick DA and von Krosigk M, 1992 [guinea pig]5 ).
I N
I L high threshold
Using electrophysiological recordings and imaging, the density of these channels was found to rapidly decrease with distance from soma and clustered in high density around the base of dendrites (Budde T et al, 199810 ).
I h
The properties of this current were studied using intracellular recording in slices (McCormick DA and Pape HC, 199011 ).
I K,Ca
2 types: one is a slow I AHP type current; weak in LGN, strong in peritenial; the other is fast.
I T low threshold
The kinetic properties of this current were studied in cell-attached recordings in rats (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I Na,p
I Na,t
The properties of this current have been studied in cell-attached recordings in rats (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
I K
Some kinetic properties of this current were studied in cell-attached recordings in rats (Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20009 ).
Axon hillock
I K
I Na,t
Axon fiber
I Na,t
Axon terminal
I N
inferred
Glutamate Neocortical stellate and pyramidal cells; TRN neurons; local interneurons
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  McCormick DA and Prince DA. (1987) Actions of acetylcholine in the guinea-pig and cat medial and lateral geniculate nuclei, in vitro. J Physiol 392:147-65.
2.  Lu SM, Guido W and Sherman SM. (1993) The brain-stem parabrachial region controls mode of response to visual stimulation of neurons in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus. Vis Neurosci 10:631-42.
3.  McCormick DA. (1989) Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation of thalamocortical processing. Trends Neurosci 12:215-21.
4.  Okada M, Onodera K, Van Renterghem C, Sieghart W and Takahashi T. (2000) Functional correlation of GABA(A) receptor alpha subunits expression with the properties of IPSCs in the developing thalamus. J Neurosci 20:2202-8.
5.  McCormick DA and von Krosigk M. (1992) Corticothalamic activation modulates thalamic firing through glutamate "metabotropic" receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:2774-8.
6.  Govindaiah and Cox CL. (2004) Synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors regulates dendritic outputs of thalamic interneurons. Neuron 41:611-23.
7.  Smith Y, Paré D, Deschênes M, Parent A and Steriade M. (1988) Cholinergic and non-cholinergic projections from the upper brainstem core to the visual thalamus in the cat. Exp Brain Res 70:166-80.
8.  Bickford ME, Günlük AE, Guido W and Sherman SM. (1993) Evidence that cholinergic axons from the parabrachial region of the brainstem are the exclusive source of nitric oxide in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat. J Comp Neurol 334:410-30 [Journal] .
9.  Williams SR and Stuart GJ. (2000) Action potential backpropagation and somato-dendritic distribution of ion channels in thalamocortical neurons. J Neurosci 20:1307-17.
10.  Budde T, Munsch T and Pape HC. (1998) Distribution of L-type calcium channels in rat thalamic neurones. Eur J Neurosci 10:586-97.
11.  McCormick DA and Pape HC. (1990) Properties of a hyperpolarization-activated cation current and its role in rhythmic oscillation in thalamic relay neurones. J Physiol 431:291-318.
12.  Steriade M and Llinás RR. (1988) The functional states of the thalamus and the associated neuronal interplay. Physiol Rev 68:649-742 [Journal] .