Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cell

- - NCx - V1 - L2-6 - PRINC - pyramidal - intratelencephalic - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal apical dendrite
Deep pyramidal neuron terminals (T) from other regions; some TC terminals (T) Glutamate
GabaA
(Dammerman RS et al, 20001 ).
mGluR
NMDA
(Thomson AM, 19973 ).
I Calcium
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke little or none Ca2+ influx in the dendritic tuft, unless is paired with synaptic input (Waters J et al, 20034 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
I p,q
I Na,t
(Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20006 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20034 ).
Glutamate
Dual whole-cell recordings showed that Ca2+-dependent release of a retrograde messenger, most probably glutamate, from dendrites suppresses the inhibition of pyramidal neurons (Zilberter Y, 200012 ).
Middle apical dendrite
Deep pyramidal neuron terminals (T) from other regions; some TC terminals (T) Glutamate
NMDA
(Thomson AM, 19973 ).
I p,q
I Na,t
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20034 ).
I Calcium
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20034 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Glutamate
Dual whole-cell recordings showed that Ca2+-dependent release of a retrograde messenger, most probably glutamate, from dendrites suppresses the inhibition of pyramidal neurons (Zilberter Y, 200012 ).
Proximal apical dendrite
Deep pyramidal neuron terminals (T) from other regions; some TC terminals (T) Glutamate
NMDA
(Thomson AM, 19973 ).
I Calcium
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20034 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
I Na,t
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20034 ).
I p,q
Glutamate
Dual whole-cell recordings showed that Ca2+-dependent release of a retrograde messenger, most probably glutamate, from dendrites suppresses the inhibition of pyramidal neurons (Zilberter Y, 200012 ).
Distal basal dendrite
TC terminals (T) Glutamate
I Calcium
Action potential-evoked Ca2+ signals in spines of basal dendrites decreased slightly with distance from the soma (Koester HJ and Sakmann B, 2000 [rat]7 ).
Middle basal dendrite
TC terminals (T) Glutamate
I Calcium
Action potential-evoked Ca2+ signals in spines of basal dendrites decreased slightly with distance from the soma (Koester HJ and Sakmann B, 2000 [rat]7 ).
Proximal basal dendrite
TC terminals (T) Glutamate
I Calcium
Action potential-evoked Ca2+ signals in spines of basal dendrites decreased slightly with distance from the soma (Koester HJ and Sakmann B, 2000 [rat]7 ).
Soma
Basket Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaB
Basket Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaA
GABA from basket cell inhibitory interneurons.
AMPA
Simultaneous recordings were carried out in visual cortical slices. Assuming open probability of non-NMDA receptor channels to be 0.7, it is suggested that the number of channels available for synaptic transmission between individual pyramidal cells would be 74 (kittens) and 59 (rats)(Yoshimura Y et al, 19992 ).
I Na,t
Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20034 ).
I K,Ca
Intracellular recordings from sensorimotor cortex suggested that what activate IKCa persistently would not be calcium but some biochemical modification triggered by NMDA receptor activation (Kitagawa H et al, 2000 [cat]8 ). Ca2+-activated K+ currents were studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons (Sun X et al, 20039 ).
I Calcium
Intracellular recordings suggested different functional consequences for modulation of Ca2+ current subtypes. Based on the effects of specific organic Ca2+ channel blockers the sAHP was found to be coupled to N-, P-, and Q-type currents. P-type currents were coupled to the mAHP (Pineda JC et al, 199810 ). It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat]11 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20034 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
I L high threshold
It has been suggested that this current is not involved in the generation of AHP but (with other HVA currents) contributes to the inward currents that regulate interspike intervals during repetitive firing (Pineda JC et al, 199810 ). using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons showed that Ca2+-dependent K+ currents were activated by Ca2+ entry through both N- and L-type channels (Sun X et al, 20039 ).
Axon hillock
Chandelier Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaB
Chandelier Cell Interneuron terminals (T) GabaA
GABA from chandelier inhibitory interneurons.
I Na,t
I K
Axon fiber
I Na,t
Axon terminal
I N
Glutamate Deep pyramidal neurons and interneurons
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Dammerman RS, Flint AC, Noctor S and Kriegstein AR. (2000) An excitatory GABAergic plexus in developing neocortical layer 1. J Neurophysiol 84:428-34 [Journal] .
2.  Yoshimura Y, Kimura F and Tsumoto T. (1999) Estimation of single channel conductance underlying synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells in the visual cortex. Neuroscience 88:347-52.
3.  Thomson AM. (1997) Activity-dependent properties of synaptic transmission at two classes of connections made by rat neocortical pyramidal axons in vitro. J Physiol 502 ( Pt 1):131-47.
4.  Waters J, Larkum M, Sakmann B and Helmchen F. (2003) Supralinear Ca2+ influx into dendritic tufts of layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 23:8558-67.
5.  Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88 [Journal] .
6.  Williams SR and Stuart GJ. (2000) Backpropagation of physiological spike trains in neocortical pyramidal neurons: implications for temporal coding in dendrites. J Neurosci 20:8238-46.
7.  Koester HJ and Sakmann B. (2000) Calcium dynamics associated with action potentials in single nerve terminals of pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 of the young rat neocortex. J Physiol 529 Pt 3:625-46.
8.  Kitagawa H, Nishimura Y, Kumazawa Y, Akamine T and Yamamoto T. (2000) Activity-dependent slow hyperpolarization in cat sensorimotor cortex in vitro. Brain Res 869:69-77.
9.  Sun X, Gu XQ and Haddad GG. (2003) Calcium influx via L- and N-type calcium channels activates a transient large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current in mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 23:3639-48.
10.  Pineda JC, Waters RS and Foehring RC. (1998) Specificity in the interaction of HVA Ca2+ channel types with Ca2+-dependent AHPs and firing behavior in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 79:2522-34 [Journal] .
11.  Brown AM, Schwindt PC and Crill WE. (1993) Voltage dependence and activation kinetics of pharmacologically defined components of the high-threshold calcium current in rat neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:1530-43 [Journal] .
12.  Zilberter Y. (2000) Dendritic release of glutamate suppresses synaptic inhibition of pyramidal neurons in rat neocortex. J Physiol 528:489-96.