Retina ganglion GLU cell

- - - RET - PRINC - ganglion - - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal equivalent dendrite
ON bipolar (midget bipolar) Glutamate
ON beta Ganglion cells. ON beta Ganglion cells respond to ionophoresed GLU and GLU agonists, and are blocked by GLU antagonists (SOBiv p238). Ganglion cells express GLUR and NMDAR (Cohen ED et al, 1994 [cat]1 ). reviewed by SOBiv p238). Multiple subunits of GLUR and NMDAR are present (Hamassaki-Britto DE et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Peng YW et al, 1995 [mammal]3 ). (Vardi N and Morigiwa K, 1997 [rat]4 ). SOBiv p238). Some bipolar cells contain glycine (Cohen E and Sterling P, 1986 [cat]5 ). (Pourcho RG and Goebel DJ, 1987 [cat]6 ). but the postsynaptic target is most likely amacrine cells (SOBiv p238).
Starburst amacrine cells Nicotinic
Starburst amacrine cells release a pulse of Ach onto ganglion cells dendrites (Masland RH et al, 1984 [rabbit]7 ). (Massey SC and Redburn DA, 1985 [rabbit]8 ). sobiv p217)(Linn DM et al, 1991 [rabbit]9 ). (Famiglietti EV, 1991 [rabbit]10 ). sobiv 242). This is excitatory (Schmidt M et al, 1987 [cat]11 ). (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv p217), boosting ganglion cell transients, increasing sensitivity to motion (Sterling P, 199813 ). sobiv p217). These nicotinic receptors desensitize rapidly (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv 242). Dendritic compartments not specified.
Bipolar cells Gaba
Lateral circuits contribute to the inhibitory surround. The bipolar neurons release glycine or GABA onto presynaptic bipolar neurons and ganglion cell dendrites (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1989 [cat]14 ). (Grünert U and Wässle H, 1990 [macaque monkey]15 ). (Crooks J and Kolb H, 1992 [human]16 ). (Vardi N and Sterling P, 1994 [macaque and human]17 ). (Calkins DJ and Sterling P, 1996 [primate]18 ). SOBiv p243).
Amacrine cells Glycine
Many amacrine-to-ganglion cell synapses accumulate glycine (Freed MA and Sterling P, 1988 [cat]19 ). and stain for postsynaptic GLYR (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1991 [cat]20 ). (Sassoè-Pognetto M et al, 1994 [rat]21 ). SOBiv p238).Clusters of glycine receptors were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
GabaA
Clusters of the alpha1, and alpha2, alpha3, and gamma2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells. Experiments with different combinations of the subunit-specific antibodies showed that the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor are not colocalized within the same clusters, suggesting that an individual neuron can express several isoforms of the GABAA receptor and that these different isoforms are aggregated at distinct postsynaptic sites (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
Middle equivalent dendrite
ON bipolar (midget bipolar) Glutamate
ON beta Ganglion cells. ON beta Ganglion cells respond to ionophoresed GLU and GLU agonists, and are blocked by GLU antagonists (SOBiv p238). Ganglion cells express GLUR and NMDAR (Cohen ED et al, 1994 [cat]1 ). reviewed by SOBiv p238). Multiple subunits of GLUR and NMDAR are present (Hamassaki-Britto DE et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Peng YW et al, 1995 [mammal]3 ). (Vardi N and Morigiwa K, 1997 [rat]4 ). SOBiv p238). Some bipolar cells contain glycine (Cohen E and Sterling P, 1986 [cat]5 ). (Pourcho RG and Goebel DJ, 1987 [cat]6 ). but the postsynaptic target is most likely amacrine cells (SOBiv p238).
Bipolar cells Gaba
Lateral circuits contribute to the inhibitory surround. The bipolar neurons release glycine or GABA onto presynaptic bipolar neurons and ganglion cell dendrites (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1989 [cat]14 ). (Grünert U and Wässle H, 1990 [macaque monkey]15 ). (Crooks J and Kolb H, 1992 [human]16 ). (Vardi N and Sterling P, 1994 [macaque and human]17 ). (Calkins DJ and Sterling P, 1996 [primate]18 ). SOBiv p243).
Starburst amacrine cells Nicotinic
Starburst amacrine cells release a pulse of Ach onto ganglion cells dendrites (Masland RH et al, 1984 [rabbit]7 ). (Massey SC and Redburn DA, 1985 [rabbit]8 ). sobiv p217)(Linn DM et al, 1991 [rabbit]9 ). (Famiglietti EV, 1991 [rabbit]10 ). sobiv 242). This is excitatory (Schmidt M et al, 1987 [cat]11 ). (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv p217), boosting ganglion cell transients, increasing sensitivity to motion (Sterling P, 199813 ). sobiv p217). These nicotinic receptors desensitize rapidly (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv 242). Dendritic compartments not specified.
Amacrine cells Glycine
Many amacrine-to-ganglion cell synapses accumulate glycine (Freed MA and Sterling P, 1988 [cat]19 ). and stain for postsynaptic GLYR (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1991 [cat]20 ). (Sassoè-Pognetto M et al, 1994 [rat]21 ). SOBiv p238).Clusters of glycine receptors were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
GabaA
Clusters of the alpha1, and alpha2, alpha3, and gamma2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells. Experiments with different combinations of the subunit-specific antibodies showed that the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor are not colocalized within the same clusters, suggesting that an individual neuron can express several isoforms of the GABAA receptor and that these different isoforms are aggregated at distinct postsynaptic sites (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
I Na,t
AP propagation was studied in the somas and dendrites of intact retinal ganglion cells exposed by enzymatic removal of the overlying endfeet of the Muller glia. Simultaneous somatic and dendritic whole cell patch recordings suggested that the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells support Na+ AP. (Velte TJ and Masland RH, 199930 ).
Proximal equivalent dendrite
Starburst amacrine cells Nicotinic
Starburst amacrine cells release a pulse of Ach onto ganglion cells dendrites (Masland RH et al, 1984 [rabbit]7 ). (Massey SC and Redburn DA, 1985 [rabbit]8 ). sobiv p217)(Linn DM et al, 1991 [rabbit]9 ). (Famiglietti EV, 1991 [rabbit]10 ). sobiv 242). This is excitatory (Schmidt M et al, 1987 [cat]11 ). (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv p217), boosting ganglion cell transients, increasing sensitivity to motion (Sterling P, 199813 ). sobiv p217). These nicotinic receptors desensitize rapidly (Kaneda M et al, 1995 [cat]12 ). sobiv 242). Dendritic compartments not specified.
Bipolar cells Gaba
Lateral circuits contribute to the inhibitory surround. The bipolar neurons release glycine or GABA onto presynaptic bipolar neurons and ganglion cell dendrites (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1989 [cat]14 ). (Grünert U and Wässle H, 1990 [macaque monkey]15 ). (Crooks J and Kolb H, 1992 [human]16 ). (Vardi N and Sterling P, 1994 [macaque and human]17 ). (Calkins DJ and Sterling P, 1996 [primate]18 ). SOBiv p243).
ON bipolar (midget bipolar) Glutamate
ON beta Ganglion cells. ON beta Ganglion cells respond to ionophoresed GLU and GLU agonists, and are blocked by GLU antagonists (SOBiv p238). Ganglion cells express GLUR and NMDAR (Cohen ED et al, 1994 [cat]1 ). reviewed by SOBiv p238). Multiple subunits of GLUR and NMDAR are present (Hamassaki-Britto DE et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Peng YW et al, 1995 [mammal]3 ). (Vardi N and Morigiwa K, 1997 [rat]4 ). SOBiv p238). Some bipolar cells contain glycine (Cohen E and Sterling P, 1986 [cat]5 ). (Pourcho RG and Goebel DJ, 1987 [cat]6 ). but the postsynaptic target is most likely amacrine cells (SOBiv p238).
Amacrine cells Glycine
Many amacrine-to-ganglion cell synapses accumulate glycine (Freed MA and Sterling P, 1988 [cat]19 ). and stain for postsynaptic GLYR (Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT, 1991 [cat]20 ). (Sassoè-Pognetto M et al, 1994 [rat]21 ). SOBiv p238).Clusters of glycine receptors were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
GabaA
Clusters of the alpha1, and alpha2, alpha3, and gamma2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells. Experiments with different combinations of the subunit-specific antibodies showed that the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor are not colocalized within the same clusters, suggesting that an individual neuron can express several isoforms of the GABAA receptor and that these different isoforms are aggregated at distinct postsynaptic sites (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ).
I Na,t
AP propagation was studied in the somas and dendrites of intact retinal ganglion cells exposed by enzymatic removal of the overlying endfeet of the Muller glia. Simultaneous somatic and dendritic whole cell patch recordings suggested that the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells support Na+ AP. (Velte TJ and Masland RH, 199930 ).
Soma
GabaA
Clusters of the alpha1, and alpha2, alpha3, and gamma2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells. Experiments with different combinations of the subunit-specific antibodies showed that the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor are not colocalized within the same clusters, suggesting that an individual neuron can express several isoforms of the GABAA receptor and that these different isoforms are aggregated at distinct postsynaptic sites (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ). (Gutiérrez-Fisac JL et al, 200223 ). Mose retinal ganglion (Tian N et al, 199824 ).
Glycine
Clusters of glycine receptors were found on the somatodendritic membranes of Alpha ganglion cells (Koulen P et al, 1996 [rat rabbit]22 ). (Tran MN et al, 199925 ). Half of the cells from the study (Tian N et al, 199824 ). have glycine receptors.
NMDA
Rat (Mukai S et al, 200226 ).
AMPA
(Mukai S et al, 200226 ). (Jacoby RA and Wu SM, 200127 ).
Kainate
(Mukai S et al, 200226 ).
Gaba
Gaba being from Amacrine Cells (Flores-Herr N et al, 200128 ). (Gao F and Wu SM, 199829 ).
Glutamate
Mouse (Tian N et al, 199824 ).
I Calcium
All Calcium Currents. Low Voltage Activated current increased during development(Huang SJ and Robinson DW, 199831 ).
I Na,t
AP propagation was studied in the somas and dendrites of intact retinal ganglion cells exposed by enzymatic removal of the overlying endfeet of the Muller glia. Simultaneous somatic and dendritic whole cell patch recordings suggested that the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells support Na+ AP. (Velte TJ and Masland RH, 199930 ).
I N
(Hirooka K et al, 200032 ). (Huang SJ and Robinson DW, 199831 ).
Glutamate
(Yang JH et al, 199833 ).
Axon hillock
I K
I Na,t
Axon fiber
I Na,t
Axon terminal
I N
inferred
Glutamate Thalamic Relay Neuron
Kainate
(Mukai S et al, 200226 ).
AMPA
Rat (Mukai S et al, 200226 ).
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Cohen ED, Zhou ZJ and Fain GL. (1994) Ligand-gated currents of alpha and beta ganglion cells in the cat retinal slice. J Neurophysiol 72:1260-9 [Journal] .
2.  Hamassaki-Britto DE, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Heinemann S and Hughes TE. (1993) Expression of glutamate receptor genes in the mammalian retina: the localization of GluR1 through GluR7 mRNAs. J Neurosci 13:1888-98.
3.  Peng YW, Blackstone CD, Huganir RL and Yau KW. (1995) Distribution of glutamate receptor subtypes in the vertebrate retina. Neuroscience 66:483-97.
4.  Vardi N and Morigiwa K. (1997) ON cone bipolar cells in rat express the metabotropic receptor mGluR6. Vis Neurosci 14:789-94.
5.  Cohen E and Sterling P. (1986) Accumulation of (3H)glycine by cone bipolar neurons in the cat retina. J Comp Neurol 250:1-7 [Journal] .
6.  Pourcho RG and Goebel DJ. (1987) Visualization of endogenous glycine in cat retina: an immunocytochemical study with Fab fragments. J Neurosci 7:1189-97.
7.  Masland RH, Mills JW and Cassidy C. (1984) The functions of acetylcholine in the rabbit retina. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 223:121-39 [Journal] .
8.  Massey SC and Redburn DA. (1985) Light evoked release of acetylcholine in response to a single flash: cholinergic amacrine cells receive ON and OFF input. Brain Res 328:374-7.
9.  Linn DM, Blazynski C, Redburn DA and Massey SC. (1991) Acetylcholine release from the rabbit retina mediated by kainate receptors. J Neurosci 11:111-22.
10.  Famiglietti EV. (1991) Synaptic organization of starburst amacrine cells in rabbit retina: analysis of serial thin sections by electron microscopy and graphic reconstruction. J Comp Neurol 309:40-70 [Journal] .
11.  Schmidt M, Humphrey MF and Wässle H. (1987) Action and localization of acetylcholine in the cat retina. J Neurophysiol 58:997-1015 [Journal] .
12.  Kaneda M, Hashimoto M and Kaneko A. (1995) Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of ganglion cells in the cat retina. Jpn J Physiol 45:491-508.
13.  Sterling P. (1998) The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, Shepherd G, ed. pp.205.
14.  Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT. (1989) Distribution of GABA immunoreactivity in the cat retina: a light- and electron-microscopic study. Vis Neurosci 2:425-35.
15.  Grünert U and Wässle H. (1990) GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 297:509-24 [Journal] .
16.  Crooks J and Kolb H. (1992) Localization of GABA, glycine, glutamate and tyrosine hydroxylase in the human retina. J Comp Neurol 315:287-302 [Journal] .
17.  Vardi N and Sterling P. (1994) Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina. Vision Res 34:1235-46.
18.  Calkins DJ and Sterling P. (1996) Absence of spectrally specific lateral inputs to midget ganglion cells in primate retina. Nature 381:613-5 [Journal] .
19.  Freed MA and Sterling P. (1988) The ON-alpha ganglion cell of the cat retina and its presynaptic cell types. J Neurosci 8:2303-20.
20.  Pourcho RG and Owczarzak MT. (1991) Glycine receptor immunoreactivity is localized at amacrine synapses in cat retina. Vis Neurosci 7:611-8.
21.  Sassoè-Pognetto M, Wässle H and Grünert U. (1994) Glycinergic synapses in the rod pathway of the rat retina: cone bipolar cells express the alpha 1 subunit of the glycine receptor. J Neurosci 14:5131-46.
22.  Koulen P, Sassoè-Pognetto M, Grünert U and Wässle H. (1996) Selective clustering of GABA(A) and glycine receptors in the mammalian retina. J Neurosci 16:2127-40.
23.  Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Díez-Gañán L, López García E, Banegas Banegas JR and Rodríguez Artalejo F. (2002) Work-related physical activity is not associated with body mass index and obesity. Obes Res 10:270-6 [Journal] .
24.  Tian N, Hwang TN and Copenhagen DR. (1998) Analysis of excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in mouse retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol 80:1327-40 [Journal] .
25.  Tran MN, Higgs MH and Lukasiewicz PD. (1999) AMPA receptor kinetics limit retinal amacrine cell excitatory synaptic responses. Vis Neurosci 16:835-42.
26.  Mukai S, Mishima HK, Shoge K, Shinya M, Ishihara K and Sasa M. (2002) Existence of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells obtained by the magnetic cell sorter method and inhibitory effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a neurosteroid, on the glutamate response. Jpn J Pharmacol 89:44-52.
27.  Jacoby RA and Wu SM. (2001) AMPA-preferring receptors mediate excitatory non-NMDA responses of primate retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci 18:703-10.
28.  Flores-Herr N, Protti DA and Wässle H. (2001) Synaptic currents generating the inhibitory surround of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. J Neurosci 21:4852-63.
29.  Gao F and Wu SM. (1998) Characterization of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents in salamander retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol 80:1752-64 [Journal] .
30.  Velte TJ and Masland RH. (1999) Action potentials in the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol 81:1412-7 [Journal] .
31.  Huang SJ and Robinson DW. (1998) Activation and inactivation properties of voltage-gated calcium currents in developing cat retinal ganglion cells. Neuroscience 85:239-47.
32.  Hirooka K, Kourennyi DE and Barnes S. (2000) Calcium channel activation facilitated by nitric oxide in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol 83:198-206 [Journal] .
33.  Yang JH, Maple B, Gao F, Maguire G and Wu SM. (1998) Postsynaptic responses of horizontal cells in the tiger salamander retina are mediated by AMPA-preferring receptors. Brain Res 797:125-34.