Cochlear nucleus pyramidal/fusiform GLU cell

- - CN - CNd - PRINC - pyramidal / fusiform - - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal apical dendrite
Granule Cell terminals (T) Glutamate
All levels of the apical dendrites receive input from granule cells (which receive their input from mossy fibers); the terminals make small spherical vesicle (ss) synapses (Smith PH and Rhode WS, 1985 [cat]1 ). on spines (SOBiv p126,130). The neurotransmitter is GLU (Hunter C et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Osen KK et al, 1995 [guinea pig]3 ). (Manis PB and Molitor SC, 1996 [mammal]4 ). SOBiv p128). Granule cells are similar to cerebellar granule cells (SOBiv p132).
NMDA
Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation showed that NMDAR1 was expressed in most CN neuronal types, including the fusiform cell apical dendrites. However, fusiform cell basal dendrites, which are the synaptic sites of cochlear nerve fibers, did not express NMDAR1 (Bilak MM et al, 1996 [mouse]9 ).
I A
(Juiz JM et al, 200010 ).
Middle apical dendrite
Granule Cell terminals (T) Glutamate
All levels of the apical dendrites receive input from granule cells (which receive their input from mossy fibers); the terminals make small spherical vesicle (ss) synapses (Smith PH and Rhode WS, 1985 [cat]1 ). on spines (SOBiv p126,130). The neurotransmitter is GLU (Hunter C et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Osen KK et al, 1995 [guinea pig]3 ). (Manis PB and Molitor SC, 1996 [mammal]4 ). SOBiv p128). Granule cells are similar to cerebellar granule cells (SOBiv p132).
NMDA
Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation showed that NMDAR1 was expressed in most CN neuronal types, including the fusiform cell apical dendrites. However, fusiform cell basal dendrites, which are the synaptic sites of cochlear nerve fibers, did not express NMDAR1 (Bilak MM et al, 1996 [mouse]9 ).
I A
(Juiz JM et al, 200010 ).
Proximal apical dendrite
Cartwheel Cell terminals (T) Gaba
Soma and proximal apical dendrites receive mainly flattened (FL) or pleiomorphic (PL) vesicle synapses on their trunks. These are correlated with IPSPs (SOBiv p128,130-1). Cartwheel cells stain for CLY lighter staining for GABA/GAD; SOBiv p132). Cartwheel cells produce IPSPs in pyramidal cells (see also in giant cells, and they interact with each other; SOBiv p135). Cartwheel cells are the second most numerous cell in the DCN, after the granule cells (SOBiv p135).
Granule Cell terminals (T) Glutamate
All levels of the apical dendrites receive input from granule cells (which receive their input from mossy fibers); the terminals make small spherical vesicle (ss) synapses (Smith PH and Rhode WS, 1985 [cat]1 ). on spines (SOBiv p126,130). The neurotransmitter is GLU (Hunter C et al, 1993 [mammal]2 ). (Osen KK et al, 1995 [guinea pig]3 ). (Manis PB and Molitor SC, 1996 [mammal]4 ). SOBiv p128). Granule cells are similar to cerebellar granule cells (SOBiv p132).
Cartwheel Cell terminals (T) Glycine
Soma and proximal apical dendrites receive mainly flattened (FL) or pleiomorphic (PL) vesicle synapses on their trunks. These are correlated with IPSPs (SOBiv p128,130-1). Cartwheel cells stain for CLY lighter staining for GABA/GAD; SOBiv p132). Cartwheel cells produce IPSPs in pyramidal cells (see also in giant cells, and they interact with each other; SOBiv p135). Cartwheel cells are the second most numerous cell in the DCN, after the granule cells (SOBiv p135).
AMPA
AMPA receptors postsynaptic to the auditory nerve have relatively fast decay kinetics (Gardner SM et al, 20017 ).
NMDA
Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation showed that NMDAR1 was expressed in most CN neuronal types, including the fusiform cell apical dendrites. However, fusiform cell basal dendrites, which are the synaptic sites of cochlear nerve fibers, did not express NMDAR1 (Bilak MM et al, 1996 [mouse]9 ).
I A
(Juiz JM et al, 200010 ).
Distal basal dendrite
vertical cells Glycine
Basal dendrites receive flattened (FL) and pleiomorphic (PL) synapses (90% of total synapses on proximal dendrites, 62% on distal dendrites) (SOBiv p131). Vertical cells stain for glycine (Wenthold RJ et al, 1987 [guinea pig]5 ). (Saint Marie RL et al, 1991 [guinea pig]6 ). SOBiv p131).
Middle basal dendrite
vertical cells Glycine
Basal dendrites receive flattened (FL) and pleiomorphic (PL) synapses (90% of total synapses on proximal dendrites, 62% on distal dendrites) (SOBiv p131). Vertical cells stain for glycine (Wenthold RJ et al, 1987 [guinea pig]5 ). (Saint Marie RL et al, 1991 [guinea pig]6 ). SOBiv p131).
Proximal basal dendrite
Soma
Cartwheel Cell terminals (T) Gaba
Soma and proximal apical dendrites receive mainly flattened (FL) or pleiomorphic (PL) vesicle synapses on their trunks. These are correlated with IPSPs (SOBiv p128,130-1). Cartwheel cells stain for CLY lighter staining for GABA/GAD; SOBiv p132). Cartwheel cells produce IPSPs in pyramidal cells (see also in giant cells, and they interact with each other; SOBiv p135). Cartwheel cells are the second most numerous cell in the DCN, after the granule cells (SOBiv p135).
Cartwheel Cell terminals (T) Glycine
Soma and proximal apical dendrites receive mainly flattened (FL) or pleiomorphic (PL) vesicle synapses on their trunks. These are correlated with IPSPs (SOBiv p128,130-1). Cartwheel cells stain for CLY lighter staining for GABA/GAD; SOBiv p132). Cartwheel cells produce IPSPs in pyramidal cells (see also in giant cells, and they interact with each other; SOBiv p135). Cartwheel cells are the second most numerous cell in the DCN, after the granule cells (SOBiv p135).
NMDA
Using radioactive in situ hybridization methods, heavy labeling for NMDAR1 subunit was observed in all major CN neuronal types with lower labeling for NMDAR2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D mRNA (Sato K et al, 1998 [rat]8 ).
NMDA
Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation showed that NMDAR1 was expressed in most CN neuronal types, including the fusiform cell apical dendrites. However, fusiform cell basal dendrites, which are the synaptic sites of cochlear nerve fibers, did not express NMDAR1 (Bilak MM et al, 1996 [mouse]9 ).
I T low threshold
See SOBiv p140).
I Na,t
Mammal. (See SOBiv p140).(Juiz JM et al, 200010 ).
I N
See SOBiv p140).
I A
This current is inactivated at rest and de-inactivated by hyperpolarization; sequences of hyperpolarization-depolarization therefore activate I A, producing the pauser reponse (Kim DO et al, 199411 ). SOBiv p140). Such sequences are seen after acoustic stimulus (Rhode WS et al, 1983 [cat]12 ). SOBiv p140).(P1)
I K
Delayed rectifier. (See SOBiv p140).
Axon hillock
I Na,t
(Juiz JM et al, 200010 ).
Axon fiber
I Na,t
P)
Axon terminal
I N
inferred
Glutamate
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Smith PH and Rhode WS. (1985) Electron microscopic features of physiologically characterized, HRP-labeled fusiform cells in the cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 237:127-43 [Journal] .
2.  Hunter C, Petralia RS, Vu T and Wenthold RJ. (1993) Expression of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor subunits in morphologically defined neurons of the mammalian cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 13:1932-46.
3.  Osen KK, Storm-Mathisen J, Ottersen OP and Dihle B. (1995) Glutamate is concentrated in and released from parallel fiber terminals in the dorsal cochlear nucleus: a quantitative immunocytochemical analysis in guinea pig. J Comp Neurol 357:482-500 [Journal] .
4.  Manis PB and Molitor SC. (1996) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at parallel fiber synapses in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 76:1639-56 [Journal] .
5.  Wenthold RJ, Huie D, Altschuler RA and Reeks KA. (1987) Glycine immunoreactivity localized in the cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex. Neuroscience 22:897-912.
6.  Saint Marie RL, Benson CG, Ostapoff EM and Morest DK. (1991) Glycine immunoreactive projections from the dorsal to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 51:11-28.
7.  Gardner SM, Trussell LO and Oertel D. (2001) Correlation of AMPA receptor subunit composition with synaptic input in the mammalian cochlear nuclei. J Neurosci 21:7428-37.
8.  Sato K, Kuriyama H and Altschuler RA. (1998) Differential distribution of NMDA receptor subunit mRNA in the rat cochlear nucleus. Microsc Res Tech 41:217-23 [Journal] .
9.  Bilak MM, Bilak SR and Morest DK. (1996) Differential expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse. Neuroscience 75:1075-97.
10.  Juiz JM, Luján R, Domínguez del Toro E, Fuentes V, Ballesta JJ and Criado M. (2000) Subcellular compartmentalization of a potassium channel (Kv1.4): preferential distribution in dendrites and dendritic spines of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Eur J Neurosci 12:4345-56.
11.  Kim DO, Ghoshal S, Khant SL and Parham K. (1994) A computational model with ionic conductances for the fusiform cell of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Acoust Soc Am 96:1501-14.
12.  Rhode WS, Smith PH and Oertel D. (1983) Physiological response properties of cells labeled intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase in cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 213:426-47 [Journal] .