Olfactory receptor GLU cell

- - OLFREC - - PRINC - olfactory receptor - - glu
Properties are:  Present   Absent 
Input Receptors
Intrinsic Currents
Output Transmitters
Distal equivalent dendrite
Odor molecules Mouse Olfactory Receptors
Human Olfactory Receptors
Olfactory Receptors
I K,Ca
Single-channel recordings from inside-out membrane patches excised from toad chemosensory cilia showed the presence of 4 different types of KCa channels, with unitary conductances of 210, 60, 12, and 29 and 60 pS, high K+-selectivity, and Ca2+ sensitivities in the low micromolar range (Delgado R et al, 20034 ).
I CNG
(Nakamura T and Gold GH, 19879 ). The basal conductance of unstimulated frog ORN was investigated using whole-cell and perforated-patch recording. It was found that under physiological conditions, gating of CNG channels contributes approximately 0.06 nS to the resting neuronal conductance (Pun RY and Kleene SJ, 200312 ).
I Cl,Ca
In cilia; K 0.5 for Ca activation is 5 uM; most of Ca activated current is carried by chloride and persists in the absence of Na and K; Cl channel inhibitor 3',5-dichlorodiphenylamine-2-carboxylate (300uM) reduces current 90%; other Cl-channel inhibitors were tested [SITS, DIDS, A9C, DPC, NPPB, DCDPC] (Kleene SJ and Gesteland RC, 1991 [frog]16 ). Properties of this channel in rat, and its functional interplay with the CNG channel, were studied by using inside-out membrane patches excised from ORN dendritic knobs/cilia (Reisert J et al, 20037 ). and inside-out membrane patches (Hallani M et al, 19988 ).
Middle equivalent dendrite
I K,Ca
Single-channel recordings from inside-out membrane patches excised from toad chemosensory cilia showed the presence of 4 different types of KCa channels, with unitary conductances of 210, 60, 12, and 29 and 60 pS, high K+-selectivity, and Ca2+ sensitivities in the low micromolar range (Delgado R et al, 20034 ).
I Cl,Ca
Present in lower density than in the cilia.Properties of this channel in rat, and its functional interplay with the CNG channel, were studied by using inside-out membrane patches excised from ORN dendritic knobs/cilia (Reisert J et al, 20037 ). and inside-out membrane patches (Hallani M et al, 19988 ).
I CNG
Present in lower density than in the cilia (Nakamura T and Gold GH, 19879 ). see also In addition, IP3 gated ion channel; found in the autodendritic membrane (Hatt H and Ache BW, 1994 [lobster]10 ). (Fadool DA and Ache BW, 1994 [lobster]11 ). The basal conductance of unstimulated frog ORN was investigated using whole-cell and perforated-patch recording. It was found that under physiological conditions, gating of CNG channels contributes approximately 0.06 nS to the resting neuronal conductance (Pun RY and Kleene SJ, 200312 ).
Proximal equivalent dendrite
Soma
Dopaminergic Receptor
Perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that dopamine modulates the L-type Ca2+ channels in rat olfactory receptor neurons via a voltage-independent mechanism (Okada Y et al, 20032 ).
Dopaminergic Receptor
Dopamine modulates Ih in cultured rat olfactory receptor neurons (Vargas G and Lucero MT, 19993 ).
I h
Properties of this current and its modulation by PKA were studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques (Vargas G and Lucero MT, 20025 ). Modulation of this current by dopamine was studied using standard patch-clamp techniques. (Vargas G and Lucero MT, 19993 ).
I T low threshold
Mechanisms underlying suppression of this current by odorants were investigated in newt ORNs using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique (Kawai F, 19996 ).
I L high threshold
Cultured cells; blocked by 100 uM Cd or nifedipine (IC50=368 nM); no T-type Ca channels found (Trombley PQ and Westbrook GL, 1991 [rat]13 ). Mechanisms underlying suppression of this current by odorants were investigated in newt ORNs using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique (Kawai F, 19996 ).
I Na,t
Cultured cells; TTX-sensitive (Trombley PQ and Westbrook GL, 1991 [rat]13 ). TTX-resistant (Firestein S and Werblin FS, 1987 [salamander]14 ).
I K,Ca
(Firestein S and Werblin FS, 1987 [salamander]14 ).
I CNG
IP3 gated ion channel; found in soma by (Fadool DA and Ache BW, 1992 [lobster]15 ). (Fadool DA and Ache BW, 1994 [lobster]11 ).
I K
(Firestein S and Werblin FS, 1987 [salamander]14 ). Cultured cells (Trombley PQ and Westbrook GL, 1991 [rat]13 ). Effects of odorants on this current in newt ORNs were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp (Kawai F, 19996 ).
I A
(Firestein S and Werblin FS, 1987 [salamander]14 ).
Axon hillock
I Na,t
TTX-sensitive (Trombley PQ and Westbrook GL, 1991 [rat]13 ).
I K
Axon fiber
I Na,t
Axon terminal
GabaB
GABAB receptors act presinaptically to regulate the release of glutamate from olfactory nerve terminal (Bonino M et al, 19991 ).
Glutamate
Olfactory bulb main mitral GLU cell
 -Distal apical dendrite.AMPA
Olfactory bulb main interneuron periglomerular GABA cell
 -Distal equivalent dendrite.AMPA
Olfactory bulb main tufted middle GLU cell
 -Distal apical dendrite.AMPA
Electrophysiology data: AP5 attenuates delayed excitatory components in peristimulus time histograms of mitral cell unit responses to olfactory nerve volleys (Ennis M et al, 1996 [rat]17 ). Electrophysiology data: DNQX attenuates early and late excitatory components in peristimulus time histograms of mitral cell unit responses to olfactory nerve volleys (Ennis M et al, 1996 [rat]17 ). Intracellular recordings: AP5 blocks late component of EPSP elicited by olfactory nerve volley (Berkowicz DA et al, 1994 [turtle]18 ). Intracellular recordings: AP5 blocks late component of EPSP response to olfactory nerve volley (Chen WR and Shepherd GM, 1997 [rat]19 ). Intracellular recordings: CNQX blocks early component of EPSP elicited by olfactory nerve volley (Berkowicz DA et al, 1994 [turtle]18 ). Intracellular recordings: CNQX blocks early component of EPSP response to olfactory nerve volley (Chen WR and Shepherd GM, 1997 [rat]19 ).
Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Bonino M, Cantino D and Sasso√®-Pognetto M. (1999) Cellular and subcellular localization of gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptors in the rat olfactory bulb. Neurosci Lett 274:195-8.
2.  Okada Y, Miyamoto T and Toda K. (2003) Dopamine modulates a voltage-gated calcium channel in rat olfactory receptor neurons. Brain Res 968:248-55.
3.  Vargas G and Lucero MT. (1999) Dopamine modulates inwardly rectifying hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) in cultured rat olfactory receptor neurons. J Neurophysiol 81:149-58 [Journal] .
4.  Delgado R, Saavedra MV, Schmachtenberg O, Sierralta J and Bacigalupo J. (2003) Presence of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in chemosensory cilia support a role in odor transduction. J Neurophysiol 90:2022-8 [Journal] .
5.  Vargas G and Lucero MT. (2002) Modulation by PKA of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) in cultured rat olfactory receptor neurons. J Membr Biol 188:115-25 [Journal] .
6.  Kawai F. (1999) Odorants suppress T- and L-type Ca2+ currents in olfactory receptor cells by shifting their inactivation curves to a negative voltage. Neurosci Res 35:253-63.
7.  Reisert J, Bauer PJ, Yau KW and Frings S. (2003) The Ca-activated Cl channel and its control in rat olfactory receptor neurons. J Gen Physiol 122:349-63 [Journal] .
8.  Hallani M, Lynch JW and Barry PH. (1998) Characterization of calcium-activated chloride channels in patches excised from the dendritic knob of mammalian olfactory receptor neurons. J Membr Biol 161:163-71.
9.  Nakamura T and Gold GH. (1987) A cyclic nucleotide-gated conductance in olfactory receptor cilia. Nature 325:442-4 [Journal] .
10.  Hatt H and Ache BW. (1994) Cyclic nucleotide- and inositol phosphate-gated ion channels in lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:6264-8.
11.  Fadool DA and Ache BW. (1994) Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate-gated channels interact with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-gated channels in olfactory receptor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9471-5.
12.  Pun RY and Kleene SJ. (2003) Contribution of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels to the resting conductance of olfactory receptor neurons. Biophys J 84:3425-35 [Journal] .
13.  Trombley PQ and Westbrook GL. (1991) Voltage-gated currents in identified rat olfactory receptor neurons. J Neurosci 11:435-44.
14.  Firestein S and Werblin FS. (1987) Gated currents in isolated olfactory receptor neurons of the larval tiger salamander. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:6292-6.
15.  Fadool DA and Ache BW. (1992) Plasma membrane inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-activated channels mediate signal transduction in lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Neuron 9:907-18.
16.  Kleene SJ and Gesteland RC. (1991) Calcium-activated chloride conductance in frog olfactory cilia. J Neurosci 11:3624-9.
17.  Ennis M, Zimmer LA and Shipley MT. (1996) Olfactory nerve stimulation activates rat mitral cells via NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in vitro. Neuroreport 7:989-92.
18.  Berkowicz DA, Trombley PQ and Shepherd GM. (1994) Evidence for glutamate as the olfactory receptor cell neurotransmitter. J Neurophysiol 71:2557-61 [Journal] .
19.  Chen WR and Shepherd GM. (1997) Membrane and synaptic properties of mitral cells in slices of rat olfactory bulb. Brain Res 745:189-96.