NEURON interface to GAUL (Neymotin and Lytton)

Accession:102464
This interface allows the use of genetic algorithms for optimization and search in high-dimensional spaces from within the NEURON environment. It includes converted .c,.h files from GAUL wrapped in proper MOD file syntax as well as MOD code interfacing to the library. It also comes with hoc utilitiy functions to make it easier to use the GA.
Tool Information (Click on a link to find other Tools with that property)
Tool Type: Control Simulations;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
\
neuron_gaul_2
gaul
readme.txt
compatibility.mod
ga_bitstring.mod
ga_chromo.mod
ga_climbing.mod
ga_compare.mod
ga_core.mod
ga_crossover.mod
ga_de.mod
ga_deterministiccrowding.mod
ga_gradient.mod
ga_hoc.mod
ga_intrinsics.mod
ga_io.mod
ga_mutate.mod
ga_optim.mod
ga_qsort.mod
ga_randomsearch.mod
ga_rank.mod
ga_replace.mod
ga_sa.mod
ga_seed.mod
ga_select.mod
ga_similarity.mod
ga_simplex.mod
ga_stats.mod
ga_systematicsearch.mod
ga_tabu.mod
ga_utility.mod
linkedlist.mod
log_util.mod
memory_chunks.mod
memory_util.mod
nn_util.mod
random_util.mod
avltree.mod
table_util.mod
timer_util.mod
vecst.mod
mosinit.hoc
ga_utils.hoc
init.hoc
declist.hoc
setup.hoc
decvec.hoc
ga_test.hoc
gaul.h
xtmp
                            
// $Id: declist.hoc,v 1.126 2007/09/05 21:54:28 billl Exp $

//* Declarations
strdef mchnms
objref tmplist,tmplist2,tmpobj,aa,XO,YO
if (! name_declared("datestr")) load_file("setup.hoc")
tmplist = new List()
proc declist() {}

//* Templates
//** template String2
begintemplate String2
public s,t,x,append,prepend,exec,tinit
strdef s,t
proc init() {
  if (numarg() == 1) { s=$s1 }
  if (numarg() == 2) { s=$s1 t=$s2 }
  if (numarg() == 3) { s=$s1 t=$s2 x=$3 }
}
proc append () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",s,$s1)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",t,$si)
}
proc prepend () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",$si,t)
}
proc exec () {
  if (numarg()==1) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
  execute(t)
}
proc tinit() { t=$s1 }

endtemplate String2

//** template DBL
begintemplate DBL
  public x
  proc init () { if (numarg()==1) x=$1 else x=0 }
endtemplate DBL

//** template Union
// USAGE: XO=new Union(val) where val can be a number string or object
//        XO=new Union(list,index) will pick up a string or object from list
//        XO=new Union(vec,index)  will pick up a number from vector
//        XO=new Union(&dbl,index) will pick up a number from double array
// Union allows storage of a double, string or object
// It is useful as a localobj in an obfunc since it will permit returning anything
// It also makes it easy to pick up any kind of value out of a list, vector or array
begintemplate Union
public ty,x,s,t,o
strdef s,t
objref o[2]
double x[2]
external sfunc,tstr
// 1arg -- store a num, string or obj
// 2arg -- pick up type out of list
proc init() { local ii
  x=x[1]=0 ty=-1
  if (numarg() == 1) {
    ty = argtype(1)
    if (ty==0) { x=$1
    } else if (ty==2) { s=$s1 
    } else if (ty==1) { o=$o1 
    } else printf("Union ERR: argtype not recognized %d\n",ty)
  } else if (numarg()==2) {
    ii=$2
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
      if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { 
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.size) {
          printf("Union ERR: vec index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        ty=0 x=$o1.x[ii] o=$o1
      } else if (isobj($o1,"List")) {
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.count) {
          printf("Union ERR: list index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        if (isobj($o1.object(ii),"String")) { // will handle String2
          ty=2 s=$o1.object(ii).s o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii
        } else { ty=1 o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii }
      }
    } else if (argtype(1)==3) {
      ty=0 x=$&1[ii] // could check - but no + bound checking possible
    }
  }
}

func isobj () {
  sprint(tstr,"%s",$o1)
  if (sfunc.substr(tstr,$s2)==0) return 1 else return 0
}
endtemplate Union

//* Iterators
//** list iterator ltr
// usage 'for ltr(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltr(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: x is counter (else use global i1)
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5) { print XO,x }' :: max; only print out 0-5
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: print 5-7
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5) { print XO,x }' :: counter with max
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: counter,min,max
iterator ltr () { local i,min,max,ifl
  min=0 max=1e9 ifl=0 // iterator flag
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(3)==3) {ifl=1 $&3=0}
    if (argtype(3)==0) max=$3
  } else if (numarg()==4) { 
    if (argtype(3)==0) i1=min=$3 else {ifl=1 $&3=0}
    max=$4 
  } else if (numarg()==5) { 
    $&3=min=$4 max=$5 ifl=1 
  }
  if (! ifl) i1=0
  if (numarg()==1) {
    for i = 0, $o1.count-1 {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      i1+=1
    }
    tmpobj=$o1
    XO=nil
  } else {
    if (max==1e9) max=$o2.count()-1 else if (max<0) { min=$o2.count+max max=$o2.count-1 
    } else if (max>$o2.count-1) max=$o2.count-1
    for i = min, max {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      if (ifl) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
    }
    tmpobj=$o2
    $o1 = nil
  }
}

//** list iterator ltrb -- backwards list iterator
// usage 'for ltrb(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: 3 args, define counter (else i1 default)
//                                                 :: note that x, i1 must be defined
iterator ltrb () { local i
  if (numarg()==1) {
    i1=$o1.count-1
    for (i=$o1.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      i1-=1
    }
    tmpobj=$o1 XO=nil
  } else {
    if (numarg()==3) $&3=$o2.count-1 else i1=$o2.count-1
    for (i=$o2.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      if (numarg()==3) { $&3-=1 } else { i1-=1 }
    }
    tmpobj=$o2
    $o1 = nil
  }
}

//** list iterator ltr2
// usage 'for ltr2(XO, YO, list1, list2) { print XO,YO }'
iterator ltr2() { local i,cnt
  if (numarg()==5) $&5=0 else i1=0
  cnt=$o4.count
  if ($o3.count != $o4.count) { print "ltr2 WARNING: lists have different lengths" 
    if ($o3.count<$o4.count) cnt=$o3.count }
  for i = 0, cnt-1 {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i)
    $o2 = $o4.object(i)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==5) { $&5+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil
}

//** list pairwise iterator ltrp
// usage 'for ltrp(XO, YO, list) { print XO,YO }' takes them pairwise
iterator ltrp() { local i
  if (numarg()==4) {$&4=0} else {i1 = 0}
  for (i=0;i<$o3.count()-1;i+=2) {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i) $o2 = $o3.object(i+1)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==4) { $&4+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil
}

//** list iterator sltr
// usage 'for sltr(XO, string) { print XO }'
iterator sltr() { local i
  tmplist = new List($s2)
  if (numarg()==3) {$&3=0} else {i1=0}
  for i = 0, tmplist.count() - 1 {
    $o1 = tmplist.object(i)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==3) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1 = nil
}

//* Procedures
//** append(LIST,o1,o2,...) -- like revec() makes a list of objects
proc append () { local i,max
  if (!isassigned($o1)) $o1=new List()
  max=numarg()
  if (argtype(max)==0) {max-=1 $o1.remove_all}
  for i=2,max $o1.append($oi)
}

//** rcshead([flag])
// with flag does head from archive
func rcshead () { local x,flag localobj st
  x=-1 flag=0
  st=new String2()
  if (numarg()==2) {
    st=dirname($s1)
    sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",st.s,st.t)
    flag=1
  } else st.t=$s1
  sprint(st.s,"head -1 %s",st.t)
  system(st.s,st.s)
  if (flag) sscanf(st.s,"head\t1.%d",&x) else sscanf(st.s,"%*[^,],v 1.%d",&x)
  return x
}

//** getenv()
obfunc getenv () { localobj st
  st=new String()
  sprint(st.s,"echo $%s",$s1)
  system(st.s,st.s)
  sfunc.left(st.s,sfunc.len(st.s)-1)
  if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
  return st
}

//** rcsopen(file,vers[,flag])  -- version open, flag to do load_file
// rcsopen(file,vers,proc_name)  -- just load the single proc or func from that vers
//  rcsopen("nqsnet.hoc,43,network.hoc,17,params.hoc,842,run.hoc,241") will open several files
func rcsopen () { local a,vers,ii,x localobj st,fn,v1,o,xo
  st=new String2()
  st.s=$s1
  // open network.hoc,params.hoc,run.hoc files for "#.#.#" 
  if (strm(st.s,"^[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+")) {
    a=allocvecs(v1)  o=new List()
    split(st.s,v1)
    split(st.s,o)
    if (o.count!=v1.size*2) { printf("rcsopen() discrepency: ") vlk(v1) llist(o) dealloc(a) 
      return 0 }
    for ltr(xo,o,&x) if (x%2==0) { // every other
      printf("Opening %s%d\n",xo.s,v1.x[x/2])
      if (!rcsopen(xo.s,v1.x[x/2])) { dealloc(a) return 0 }
    }
    dealloc(a)
    return 1
  }
  if (numarg()>1) vers=$2 else vers=0
  if (! vers) vers=rcshead(st.s,1) // vers=0 means get latest version
  // do checkout
  fn=filname(st.s)
  sprint(st.t,"RCS/%s,v",st.s)
  if (sfunc.len(fn.t)>0) {
    sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",fn.t,fn.s)
    print st.s,"::",st.t,"::",fn.s,"::",fn.t
  } else if (fexists(st.t)) {
    if (rcshead(st.s)!=vers) {
      sprint(st.t,"cp -f %s %s.OLD",st.s,st.s)   system(st.t)
      sprint(st.t,"co -f -r1.%d %s",vers,st.s)   system(st.t)
    }
  } else { // look for file in remote location
    getenv("SITE",st.t)
    sprint(st.t,"%s/nrniv/local/hoc/%s",st.t,st.s)
    if (! fexists(st.t)) {printf("Can't find %s\n",$s1) return 0}
    sprint(st.s,"%s%d",st.s,vers)
    printf("Found %s at %s -> %s\n",$s1,st.t,st.s)
    sprint(st.t,"co -f -p1.%d %s > %s",vers,st.t,st.s) system(st.t)
  }
  if (numarg()>2) {
    if (argtype(3)==0) {  // 3rd arg 1 means do load_file statt xopen
      if ($3) { 
        load_file(st.s)
        return 1
      } else return 1 // 3rd arg 0 does co but no open
    } else { // 3rd arg string means locate a single proc, iter etc.
      sprint(st.s,"hocproc %s %s %s",st.s,$s3,".tmp")
      system(st.s,st.t)
      if (strm(st.t,"ERROR")) return 0 else {
        printf("Loading '%s()' from %s%d (via .tmp)\n",$s3,$s1,vers)
        xopen(".tmp")
        return 1
      } 
    }
  }
  xopen(st.s)
  return 1
}

//** pxopen(FILE) prints out the version before opening a file
proc pxopen () { local flag localobj o
  flag=1
  o=new List("ParallelContext")
  if (o.count>0) if (o.o(0).id!=0) flag=0
  if (flag) printf("%s version %d\n",$s1,rcshead($s1))
  xopen($s1)
}

//** lrm(LIST,STR) will remove item with string from LIST
proc lrm () { local cnt
  cnt=0
  if (argtype(2)==2) {
    for ltrb(XO,$o1) if (strm(XO.s,$s2)) { $o1.remove(i1) cnt+=1 }
    printf("%s found %d time\n",$s2,cnt)
  } else {
    $o1.remove($o1.index($o2))
  }
}

//** lcnt(LIST,STR) will count item with string in LIST
func lcnt () { local cnt localobj xo
  cnt=0
  for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,$s2)) cnt+=1
  return cnt
}

//** lrepl(LIST,#,OBJ) will replace item at location # with OBJ
proc lrepl () { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,$o3) }

//** lswap(list,#1,#2) swap items on a list
proc lswap () { local a,b
  if ($2<$3) {a=$2 b=$3} else {a=$3 b=$2}
  $o1.insrt(a,$o1.object(b))
  $o1.remove(b+1)
  $o1.insrt(b+1,$o1.object(a+1))
  $o1.remove(a+1)
}

//** proc shl() show a list
proc shl () { 
  if (numarg()==1) tmpobj=$o1 else tmpobj=tmplist 
  if (tmpobj.count==0) return
  if (isstring(tmpobj.object(0),tstr)) {
    for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO.s
  } else for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO
}

//** lfu() = ltr follow-up, pick out a single item from the last ltr request
// lfu(list,num[,obj])
proc lfu () { 
  if (numarg()==1) { 
    if (argtype(1)==0) XO=tmpobj.object($1)
    if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  }
  if (numarg()==2) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0) {tmpobj=$o1 XO=$o1.object($2)}
    if (argtype(1)==0 && argtype(2)==1) {$o2=tmpobj.object($1)}
  }
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==1) { tmpobj=$o1 $o3=$o1.object($2) }
  }
  if (numarg()==4) {
    $o2=tmpobj.object($1)  $o4=tmpobj.object($3) 
  }
}

//** listedit() allows you to remove things by clicking
proc listedit () {
  if (numarg()==0) { print "listedit(list,str) gives browser(list,str) for removing items" return}
  if (numarg()==1) {
  if (! isstring($o1.object(0),temp_string_)) {print "Give name for string of object?" return }
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,"s")
  } else {
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,$s2)
  }
  execute1(temp_string_)
  $o1.browser("Double click to remove",temp_string_,"ledt1()")
  sprint(temp_string_,"%s.remove(hoc_ac_)",$o1)
  $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
}

//** crac() create and access
proc crac () {
  execute("create acell_home_")
  execute("access acell_home_")
}

//** listXO() connects stuff to XO from a list
proc listXO () {
  if (numarg()==1) {
    $o1.browser("Double click")
    sprint(temp_string_,"print hoc_ac_,\":XO -> \",%s.object(hoc_ac_) XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_)",$o1,$o1)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  } else if (numarg()==2) {
    $o1.browser($s2)
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  } else if (numarg()==3) {
    $o1.browser($s2)
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2,$o1,$s3)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  }
}

//** lcatstr(list,s1,s2,...) make new List("s1") new List("s2") ... in one list
proc lcatstr() { local i
  if (numarg()<3) { print "lcatstr(l1,s1,s2,...) puts new Lists into l1" return }
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  for i=3,numarg() {
    tmplist2 = new List($si)
    for ltr(XO,tmplist2) { $o1.append(XO) }  
  }
}

//** sublist() places a sublist in LIST0 from LIST1 index BEGIN to END inclusive
proc sublist () { local ii
  $o1.remove_all
  for ii=$3,$4 {
    $o1.append($o2.object(ii))
  }
}

//* catlist() concats LIST2...LISTN on end of LIST1
proc catlist () { local i
  for i = 2, numarg() {
    for ltr(YO,$oi) {
      $o1.append(YO)
    }
  }
}  

//* mechlist() creates a LIST of all this CELL type's TEMPLATE type
// list, cell, template
// make a list of mechanisms belonging to a certain template
proc mechlist () { local num,ii
//  mchnms = ""  // not a good storage since runs out of room
  if (numarg()==0) { print "mechlist(list, cell, template)" return}
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  num = $o1.count
  for ii=0,num-1 {
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s.append(%s.%s)",$o1,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
    execute(temp_string_)
    sprint(mchnms,"%s/%d/%s.%s",mchnms,ii,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
  }
  for (ii=num-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) { $o1.remove(ii) }
}

//* lp() loop through a list running command in object's context
// assumes list in tmplist
// with 1 args run $o1.object().obj_elem
// with 2 args run comm($o1.object().obj_elem)
proc lp () {
  for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
    printf("%s ",tmplist.object(ii))
    if (numarg()==2) {
      sprint(temp_string_,"%s(%s.%s)",$s2,tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
    } else {
      sprint(temp_string_,"%s.%s",tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
    }
    execute(temp_string_)
  }
}

//* prlp() loop through a list printing object name and result of command
proc prlp () {
  tmpobj=tmplist
  if (numarg()>0) if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  for ltr(XO,tmpobj) {
    printf("%d %s ",i1,XO)
    if (numarg()>1) {
      sprint(temp_string_,"print %s.%s",XO,$s2)
      execute(temp_string_)
    } else { print "" }
  }
}

//* String functions
//** repl_str(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// will only replace first string match
proc repl_str() { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  if (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
  sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
  sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
  sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
}

//** find_str(str,left,right,dest): pull out dest flanked by left and right
proc find_str() {
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,$s4) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.head($s4,$s3,$s4)
}

//** find_num(str,left,right): pull out number flanked by left and right
func find_num() { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.head(st.s,$s3,st.s)
  sscanf(st.s,"%g",&x)
  return x
}

//** repl_mstr(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// multiple replace
proc repl_mstr () { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  while (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) != -1) {
    sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
    sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
    sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
    sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
  }
}

//** extract(str,stra,strb[,dest]): pull out piece of string surrounded by stra,strb
obfunc str_extract() { local b,e,err localobj scr
  scr=new String2() err=0
  b=sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s) // scr.s contains after s2
  if (b==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s2,$s1) err=1}
  e=sfunc.head(scr.s,$s3,scr.t) // beg of s3
  if (e==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s3,scr.s) err=1}
  if (err) scr.s="" else sfunc.left(scr.s,e)
  if (numarg()==4) $s4=scr.s
  return scr
}

//** clean_str(str,scratch,s1,s2,s3,...)
// remove serial $si from string
proc clean_str () { local i
  for i=3,numarg() {
    while (sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s2) != -1) { 
      sfunc.tail($s1,$si,$s2)
      sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s1)
      sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,$s2)      
    }
  }
}

//** aaaa() (or $o2) becomes a list of strings from file $s1
proc aaaa () { local flag
  if (numarg()==2) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) aa=$o2 flag=0
  } else if (numarg()==1) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) flag=1
  } else { tmpfile.ropen("aa") flag=1 }
  if (flag==1) if (isobj(aa,"List")) { aa.remove_all() } else { aa=new List() }
  while (tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)>0) {
    chop(temp_string_)
    tmpobj=new String(temp_string_)
    aa.append(tmpobj)
  }
  tmpobj=nil
}

//* Object identification
//** objid() find information about object -- replaces var2obj, canobj, objnum
obfunc objid () { local flag localobj xo
  xo=new Union()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$o1) else sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$s1)
  execute(xo.s) // change variable name to object name
  xo.o=tmpobj
  sprint(xo.s,"%s",xo.o)
  sscanf(xo.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&xo.x)
  return xo
}

//** var2obj() and canobj() -- find true object names
// var2obj("tstr"[,"objvar"]) replaces variable name with actual name of the object
// default into XO; optional second arg allows to place somewhere else
// eg tstr="TC[0].ampa" var2obj(tstr) -> AMPA[0]
proc var2obj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"XO=%s",$s1) else sprint($s1,"%s=%s",$s2,$s1)
  execute($s1) // change variable name to object name
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"%s",XO) else sprint($s1,"%s",$s2)
  printf("var2obj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
}

//** objnum(OBJ) -- find object number
func objnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(st.s,"%s",$o1) else st.s=$s1
  if (sscanf(st.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&x) != 1) x=-1
  return x
}

proc allobjs () {
  hoc_stdout($s1)
  allobjects()
  hoc_stdout()
}

//** strnum(str,"PRE") -- pull number out of a string
func strnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String2($s1)
  sfunc.tail(st.s,$s2,st.t)
  if (sscanf(st.t,"%d",&x) != 1) x=-99e99
  return x
}

//** canobj(obj[,"OBJVAR"]) -- default will assign to XO
// canonical object -- return canonical identity for an object
// eg canobj(tc,"YO") -- figure out what tc is and assign it to YO
proc canobj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint(tstr,"XO=%s",$o1) else sprint(tstr,"%s=%s",$s2,$o1)
  execute(tstr) // change variable name to object name
  sprint(tstr,"%s",$o1)
  printf("canobj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
}

//* push() and pop() for objects -- returns
proc push () { local i
  for i=2,numarg() $o1.append($oi)
}

//** pop()
obfunc pop () { local i,cnt localobj o
  cnt=$o1.count-1
  if (cnt==-1) { print "ERR: unable to pop" return } 
  o=$o1.object(cnt)
  $o1.remove(cnt)
  return o
}

//* time()
strdef tmstr
tmstr="run()"
func time () { local tti,uintmax,cps
  uintmax=4294967295 // UINT_MAX/CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  cps=1e6 // CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  tti=prtime()
  system("date")
  if (numarg()==1) execute1($s1) else execute1(tmstr)
  tti=prtime()-tti
  if (tti<0) tti+=uintmax
  if (tti<cps) {           print tti/1e3,       "kilocycles" 
  } else if (tti<60*cps) { print tti/cps,   "s" 
  } else                   print tti/cps/60,"m"
  system("date")
  return tti/1e3
}

func ftime () { local tti
  prtime()
  if (numarg()==1) execute($s1) else execute(tmstr)
  tti=prtime()
  return tti
}

proc setdate () {
  system("date +%y%b%d",datestr)
  chop(datestr)
  downcase(datestr)
}

proc sortlist () { local a,err,ii,x,rev,na localobj v1,v2,xo,nl,il
  il=$o1
  err=rev=0
  na=numarg()
  for ii=2,3 if (na>=ii) if (argtype(ii)==0) rev=1
  a=allocvecs(v1,v2,il.count)
  nl=new List()
  if (!name_declared("oform")) err=1
  if (!err) if (oform(v1)==NOP) err=1
  if (err) {printf("sortlist uses oform()\n") err()}
  for ltr(xo,il) v1.append(oform(xo))
  v1.sortindex(v2)
  if (rev) v2.reverse
  for ii=0,v2.size-1 nl.append(il.o(v2.x[ii]))
  if ((na==2 && !rev) || na==3) $o2=nl else {
    il.remove_all
    for ltr(xo,nl) il.append(xo)
  }
  dealloc(a)
}

// LAR: list_array is list used as an array
begintemplate LAR
public l,set,x,size,nil,resize,get
objref l,nil
double size[1]

proc init () { local ii
  size=$1
  l=new List()
  for ii=0,size-1 l.append(l) // place holder
}

func set () { local ix
  ix=$1
  if (ix>=size) {printf("LAR set OOR %d>=%d\n",ix,size) return -1}
  l.remove(ix) l.insrt(ix,$o2) 
  return ix
}

obfunc x ()   { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }
obfunc get () { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }

proc resize () { local newsz,ii
  newsz=$1
  if (newsz<size) {
    for (ii=size-1;ii>=newsz;ii-=1) l.remove(ii)
  } else if (newsz>size) {
    for ii=size,newsz-1 l.append(l)
  }
  size=newsz
}
endtemplate LAR